Modern medicine owes Muslims


The contribution of Muslims in the field of medicine was enormous during the middle ages and the nature of the contributions remarkable.

Al-Raazi (AD 865-AD 925) was arguably the greatest physician in the Islamic world and one of the greatest physicians of all time. His works have been widely translated into Latin under the name Rhazes, extending his influence far beyond the borders of the Islamic world. Al-Raazi wrote Kitab Al-Mansuri, a 10-volume treatise on Greek medicine, translated into Latin by Liber ad Almansorem. His outstanding work Al-Judari-wal-Hasbah, a book on smallpox and measles, is one of the most authentic books on the subject, even to this day. It has been translated into Latin and other European languages ​​and was published over forty times between AD 1498 and AD 1866. His famous and complete work, Al-Hawi, has 20 volumes. By order of Charles I, King of Sicily, the Sicilian Jewish physician Faraj Ibn Salim translated it into Latin under the title Continens. Al-Raazi has also contributed to gynecology, obstetrics, ophthalmology and nephrology. He was also a prominent surgeon and is the inventor of the Seton in Surgery. The Seton procedure involves passing a surgical grade cord through the fistula tract so that the cord creates a loop that joins with the outside of the fistula. The cord provides a path that allows the fistula to flow continuously as it heals, rather than allowing the outside of the wound to close. Keeping the fistula tract open can help avoid trapping pus or other infectious material in the wound.

Al-Raazi developed sutures, which he extracted from animals in order to join tissue, and was the first to use sutures in the treatment of wounds. He drew on his chemical experience to develop compounds such as the salts of mercury, lead and copper which were used in processing for the first time; much of its practical success was due to its use to develop assays for these compounds using monkeys. He was also the first to use white lead in ointments and mercury ointment as a laxative. The breadth of his knowledge and his curiosity have placed him at the forefront of medicine with other companies scrambling to ensure that his translations catch up.

Ali Ibn Al-Abbas-al-Majusi (d. 994) known in the West as Haly Abbas, was the author of a famous work Kitab-al-Maliki known as Liber Regius in Latin, an excellent and compact encyclopedia dealing with both theory and practice of medical sciences. It remained a standard book until it was replaced by the Canon, the masterpiece of the great Avicenna. Al-Majusi was the first physician to write about the capillary system and accurately describe how a child is born.

Abu Ali Al-Husain-al-Sina, (980 AD – 1037) known as Avicenna in the west, was one of the greatest intellectuals in the Islamic world and is ranked second after Aristotle. His monumental work Al-Qanun-fil-Tibb (Laws of Medicine) known as the Canons of Medicine, is the masterful culmination of the Arab systematization of knowledge. It is a medical encyclopedia covering 760 drugs and diseases affecting all parts of the body, including diseases that spread through water. The book is particularly interested in pathology and pharmacopoeia and has enormous scope. It was translated into Latin in the 12th century by Gérard de Cremona, making it accessible to a wider European audience. The popularity of this book can be measured by the fact that during the 15th and 16th centuries it was published hundreds of times in various European languages. Ibn Sina’s work, Al-Qanun (Canons of Medicine) formed half of the medical curriculum of European universities in the latter part of the 15th century and continued to be used as a textbook in Western universities until about 1650 (Hitti, 2000).

Abu-Al-Jarrah-Al-Zahrawi known in Latin as Abul Casis (d. 1013) was a great surgeon, who wrote Al-Tasrif. The book is abundantly illustrated with sketches of surgical instruments and has made a profound contribution to the development of surgery in both East and West. Al-Zahrawi was the first surgeon to perform surgeries on blood vessels, such as suturing arteries, after they were cut, and joining them while they were bleeding. For the first time, he used silk fibers to close wounds and golden ligaments to heal teeth. He developed plastic sutures and many other surgical instruments that were not previously known. He drew pictures of these instruments, and gave details of their size and the material used to make them.

He developed the surgeries of lithotomy, removal of gallstones, tonsillectomy (cracking of the throat to facilitate breathing) and delivering a baby in a pelvis in case the embryo was in a position. abnormal. He recommended the assistance of nurses during surgery on women, as women are nicer and patients would feel more comfortable around them. Avicenna’s Al-Qanun and Zahrawi’s At-Tasreef Surgery remained textbooks of medical science throughout Europe until the 17th century.

Abul Qasim Zahrawi’s book on At-Tasreef Surgery was translated into Latin from Arabic by Gérard de Cremona (Gérard de Cremona (Latin: Gerardus Cremonensis) (1114 AD – 1187 AD) was an Italian translator of scientific books from Arabic to Latin) in the 12th century and its various editions were published in Venice (AD 1497), Basel (AD 1541) and Oxford (AD 1778). It has held its place for centuries as a surgical textbook in European medical schools.

Ali Ibn Isa of Baghdad known in Latin as Jesu Occulist wrote an excellent treatise on ophthalmology (the branch of medicine dealing with eye diseases). It was translated into Latin and was considered the most authoritative work on eye disease in Europe until the middle of the 18th century. Hunayn Ibn Ishaaq, wrote Ten Essays on the Eyes. Hunayn also wrote another book, which contained all the information needed for the proper treatment of eye diseases.

Abu Ali al-Hasan (AD 965 -AD 1020) known as Alhazen in the west, is recognized as the greatest authority on optics the world has ever produced. He corrected the theories of Euclid and Ptolemy on the subject. His Opticae Thesaurus influenced great writers on optics like Roger Bacon, Leonard da Vinci, John Kepler, and many other medieval Western writers. Alhazen is of the opinion that it is not the ray which leaves the eye and meets the object that gives rise to the vision, but rather the shape of the perceived object passes through the eye and is transmitted by its body. transparent.

Ibn Rushd known as Averroes (died 1198) wrote 16 medical works, one of which Kulliyat-fil-Tib deals with the general rules of medicine and was translated into Latin by Collegiate. This book has also been printed several times in Europe due to its insight, quality and usefulness.

Ibn Katina, the Moorish physician (d. 1369), is the author of an excellent book on the plague and was superior to all previous work on the subject. This book was edited and translated in Europe in the 15th century AD and revealed the contagious nature of the plague and its remedies, unknown to Greek doctors.

Ibn An-Nafees (died 1288) was the director of Mansoori Hospital in Cairo, which at the time was the best hospital in the world. Ibn An-Nafees discovered the minor circulatory system. An-Nafis’ work on right-sided (pulmonary) circulation predates William Harvey’s De motu cordis (AD 1628). Both theories attempt to explain traffic. Together, they represent the first and best Eastern and Western explorations of cardiac physiology. One of his most famous medical writings was his book The Comprehensive, which consisted of dozens of volumes.

Ibn Masawayh (died 857) was the first in the history of medicine to write a comprehensive treatise on ophthalmology, titled Ten Essays on the Eye. He was the director of a hospital in Baghdad. He has also composed numerous other medical treatises on a number of subjects including fevers, headaches, melancholy, dietetics, melancholy, dietetics, and medical aphorisms. He also translated various Greek medical works into Syriac. Many anatomical and medical writings are credited to him, in particular the “Trouble of the eye” (Daghal al-‘ain), which is the first systematic treatise on ophthalmology, whose Latin translation was very popular in the Middle Ages.

In light of the above discussion, it is safe to say that the Muslim world not only transmitted and translated an already existing body of knowledge about medicine, especially Greek physicians, but also made contributions. significant in the fields of medicine and surgery and these has become the very basis of modern advances in these fields.

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